The nodeset command enables easy manipulation of node sets, as well as node groups, at the command line level. As it is very user-friendly and efficient, the nodeset command can quickly improve traditional cluster shell scripts. It is also full-featured as it provides most of the NodeSet and RangeSet class methods (see also NodeSet class, and RangeSet class).

Most of the examples in this section are using simple indexed node sets, however, nodeset supports multidimensional node sets, like dc[1-2]n[1-99], introduced in version 1.7 (see RangeSetND class for more info).

This section will guide you through the basics and also more advanced features of nodeset.

Usage basics

One exclusive command must be specified to nodeset, for example:

$ nodeset --expand node[13-15,17-19]
node13 node14 node15 node17 node18 node19

$ nodeset --count node[13-15,17-19]

$ nodeset --fold node1-ipmi node2-ipmi node3-ipmi

Commands with inputs

Some nodeset commands require input (eg. node names, node sets or node groups), and some only give output. The following table shows commands that require some input:

Command Description
-c, --count Count and display the total number of nodes in node sets or/and node groups.
-e, --expand Expand node sets or/and node groups as unitary node names separated by current separator string (see --separator option described in Output result formatting).
-f, --fold Fold (compact) node sets or/and node groups into one set of nodes (by previously resolving any groups). The resulting node set is guaranteed to be free from node --regroup below if you want to resolve node groups in result). Please note that folding may be time consuming for multidimensional node sets.
-r, --regroup Fold (compact) node sets or/and node groups into one set of nodes using node groups whenever possible (by previously resolving any groups). See Node groups.

There are three ways to give some input to the nodeset command:

  • from command line arguments,
  • from standard input (enabled when no arguments are found on command line),
  • from both command line and standard input, by using the dash special argument "-" meaning you need to use stdin instead.

The following example illustrates the three ways to feed nodeset:

$ nodeset -f node1 node6 node7

$ echo node1 node6 node7 | nodeset -f

$ echo node1 node6 node7 | nodeset -f node0 -

Furthermore, nodeset's standard input reader is able to process multiple lines and multiple node sets or groups per line. The following example shows a simple use case:

$ mount -t nfs | cut -d':' -f1

$ mount -t nfs | cut -d':' -f1 | nodeset -f

Other usage examples of nodeset below show how it can be useful to provide node sets from standard input (sinfo is a SLURM [1] command to view nodes and partitions information and sacct is a command to display SLURM accounting data):

$ sinfo -p cuda -o '%N' -h

$ sinfo -p cuda -o '%N' -h | nodeset -e
node156 node157 node158 node159

$ for node in $(sinfo -p cuda -o '%N' -h | nodeset -e); do
        sacct -a -N $node > /tmp/cudajobs.$node;

Previous rules also apply when working with node groups, for example when using nodeset -r reading from standard input (and a matching group is found):

$ nodeset -f @gpu

$ sinfo -p cuda -o '%N' -h | nodeset -r

Most commands described in this section produce output results that may be formatted using --output-format and --separator which are described in Output result formatting.

Commands with no input

The following table shows all other commands that are supported by nodeset. These commands don't support any input (like node sets), but can still recognize options as specified below.

Command w/o input Description
-l, --list List node groups from selected group source as specified with -s or --groupsource. If not specified, node groups from the default group source are listed (see groups configuration for default group source configuration).
--groupsources List all configured group sources, one per line, as configured in groups.conf (see groups configuration). The default group source is appended with `` (default)``, unless the -q, --quiet option is specified. This command is mainly here to avoid reading any configuration files, or to check if all work fine when configuring group sources.

Output result formatting

When using the expand command (-e, --expand), a separator string is used when displaying results. The option -S, --separator allows you to modify it. The specified string is interpreted, so that you can use special characters as separator, like \n or \t. The default separator is the space character " ". This is an example showing such separator string change:

$ nodeset -e --separator='\n' node[0-3]

The -O, --output-format option can be used to format output results of most nodeset commands. The string passed to this option is used as a base format pattern applied to each node or each result (depending on the command and other options requested). The default format string is "%s". Formatting is performed using the Python builtin string formatting operator, so you must use one format operator of the right type (%s is guaranteed to work in all cases). Here is an output formatting example when using the expand command:

$ nodeset --output-format='%s-ipmi' -e node[1-2]x[1-2]
node1x1-ipmi node1x2-ipmi node2x1-ipmi node2x2-ipmi

Output formatting and separator combined can be useful when using the expand command, as shown here:

$ nodeset -O '%s-ipmi' -S '\n' -e node[1-2]x[1-2]

When using the output formatting option along with the folding command, the format is applied to each node but the result is still folded:

$ nodeset -O '%s-ipmi' -f mgmt1 mgmt2 login[1-4]

Stepping and auto-stepping

The nodeset command, as does the clush command, is able to recognize by default a factorized notation for range sets of the form a-b/c, indicating a list of integers starting from a, less than or equal to b with the increment (step) c.

For example, the 0-6/2 format indicates a range of 0-6 stepped by 2; that is 0,2,4,6:

$ nodeset -e node[0-6/2]
node0 node2 node4 node6

However, by default, nodeset never uses this stepping notation in output results, as other cluster tools seldom if ever support this feature. Thus, to enable such factorized output in nodeset, you must specify --autostep=AUTOSTEP to set an auto step threshold number when folding nodesets (ie. when using -f or -r). This threshold number (AUTOSTEP) is the minimum occurrence of equally-spaced integers needed to enable auto-stepping.

For example:

$ nodeset -f --autostep=3 node1 node3 node5

$ nodeset -f --autostep=4 node1 node3 node5

It is important to note that resulting node sets with enabled auto-stepping never create overlapping ranges, for example:

$ nodeset -f --autostep=3 node1 node5 node9 node13

$ nodeset -f --autostep=3 node1 node5 node7 node9 node13

However, any ranges given as input may still overlap (in this case, nodeset will automatically spread them out so that they do not overlap), for example:

$ nodeset -f --autostep=3 node[1-13/4,7]

A minimum node count threshold percentage before autostep is enabled may also be specified as autostep value (or auto which is currently 100%). In the two following examples, only the first 4 of the 7 indexes may be represented using the step syntax (57% of them):

$ nodeset -f --autostep=50% node[1,3,5,7,34,39,99]

$ nodeset -f --autostep=90% node[1,3,5,7,34,39,99]


Sometimes, cluster node names are padded with zeros (eg. node007). With nodeset, when leading zeros are used, resulting host names or node sets are automatically padded with zeros as well. For example:

$ nodeset -e node[08-11]
node08 node09 node10 node11

$ nodeset -f node001 node002 node003 node005

Zero-padding and stepping (as seen in Stepping and auto-stepping) together are also supported, for example:

$ nodeset -e node[000-012/4]
node000 node004 node008 node012

Since v1.9, mixed length padding is allowed, for example:

$ nodeset -f node2 node01 node001

When mixed length zero-padding is encountered, indexes with smaller padding length are returned first, as you can see in the example above (2 comes before 01).

Since v1.9, when using node sets with multiple dimensions, each dimension (or axis) may also use mixed length zero-padding:

$ nodeset -f foo1bar1 foo1bar00 foo1bar01 foo004bar1 foo004bar00 foo004bar01

Leading and trailing digits

Version 1.7 introduces improved support for bracket leading and trailing digits. Those digits are automatically included within the range set, allowing all node set operations to be fully supported.

Examples with bracket leading digits:

$ nodeset -f node-00[00-99]

$ nodeset -f node-01[01,09,42]

Examples with bracket trailing digits:

$ nodeset -f node-[1-2]0-[0-2]5

Examples with both bracket leading and trailing digits:

$ nodeset -f node-00[1-6]0

$ nodeset --autostep=auto -f node-00[1-6]0

Example with leading digit and mixed length zero padding (supported since v1.9):

$ nodeset -f node1[00-02,000-032/8]

Using this syntax can be error-prone especially if used with node sets without 0-padding or with the /step syntax and also requires additional processing by the parser. In general, we recommend writing the whole rangeset inside the brackets.


Using the step syntax (seen above) within a bracket-delimited range set is not compatible with trailing digits. For instance, this is not supported: node-00[1-6/2]0

Arithmetic operations

As a preamble to this section, keep in mind that all operations can be repeated/mixed within the same nodeset command line, they will be processed from left to right.

Union operation

Union is the easiest arithmetic operation supported by nodeset: there is no special command line option for that, just provide several node sets and the union operation will be computed, for example:

$ nodeset -f node[1-3] node[4-7]

$ nodeset -f node[1-3] node[2-7] node[5-8]

Other operations

As an extension to the above, other arithmetic operations are available by using the following command-line options (working set is the node set currently processed on the command line -- always from left to right):

nodeset command option Operation
-x NODESET, --exclude=NODESET compute a new set with elements in working set but not in NODESET
-i NODESET, --intersection=NODESET compute a new set with elements common to working set and NODESET
-X NODESET, --xor=NODESET compute a new set with elements that are in exactly one of the working set and NODESET

If rangeset mode (-R) is turned on, all arithmetic operations are supported by replacing NODESET by any RANGESET. See Range sets for more info about nodeset's rangeset mode.

Arithmetic operations usage examples:

$ nodeset -f node[1-9] -x node6

$ nodeset -f node[1-9] -i node[6-11]

$ nodeset -f node[1-9] -X node[6-11]

$ nodeset -f node[1-9] -x node6 -i node[6-12]

Extended patterns support

nodeset does also support arithmetic operations through its "extended patterns" (inherited from NodeSet extended pattern feature, see Extended String Pattern, there is an example of use:

$ nodeset -f node[1-4],node[5-9]

$ nodeset -f node[1-9]\!node6

$ nodeset -f node[1-9]\&node[6-12]

$ nodeset -f node[1-9]^node[6-11]

Special operations

A few special operations are currently available: node set slicing, splitting on a predefined node count, splitting non-contiguous subsets, choosing fold axis (for multidimensional node sets) and picking N nodes randomly. They are all explained below.


Slicing is a way to select elements from a node set by their index (or from a range set when using -R toggle option, see Range sets. In this case actually, and because nodeset's underlying NodeSet class sorts elements as observed after folding (for example), the word set may sound like a stretch of language (a set isn't usually sorted). Indeed, NodeSet further guarantees that its iterator will traverse the set in order, so we should see it as a ordered set. The following simple example illustrates this sorting behavior:

$ nodeset -f b2 b1 b0 b c a0 a

Slicing is performed through the following command-line option:

nodeset command option Operation
-I RANGESET, --slice=RANGESET slicing: get sliced off result, selecting elements from provided rangeset's indexes

Some slicing examples are shown below:

$ nodeset -f -I 0 node[4-8]

$ nodeset -f --slice=0 bnode[0-9] anode[0-9]

$ nodeset -f --slice=1,4,7,9,15 bnode[0-9] anode[0-9]

$ nodeset -f --slice=0-18/2 bnode[0-9] anode[0-9]

Splitting into n subsets

Splitting a node set into several parts is often useful to get separate groups of nodes, for instance when you want to check MPI comm between nodes, etc. Based on NodeSet.split() method, the nodeset command provides the following additional command-line option (since v1.4):

nodeset command option Operation
--split=MAXSPLIT splitting: split result into a number of subsets

MAXSPLIT is an integer specifying the number of separate groups of nodes to compute. Input's node set is divided into smaller groups, whenever possible with the same size (only the last ones may be smaller due to rounding). Obviously, if MAXSPLIT is higher than or equal to the number N of elements in the set, then the set is split to N single sets.

Some node set splitting examples:

$ nodeset -f --split=4 node[0-7]

$ nodeset -f --split=4 node[0-6]

$ nodeset -f --split=10000 node[0-4]

$ nodeset -f --autostep=3 --split=2 node[0-38/2]

Splitting off non-contiguous subsets

It can be useful to split a node set into several contiguous subsets (with same pattern name and contiguous range indexes, eg. node[1-100] or dc[1-4]node[1-100]). The --contiguous option allows you to do that. It is based on NodeSet.contiguous() method, and should be specified with standard commands (fold, expand, count, regroup). The following example shows how to split off non-contiguous subsets of a specified node set, and to display each resulting contiguous node set in a folded manner to separated lines:

$ nodeset -f --contiguous node[1-100,200-300,500]

Similarly, the following example shows how to display each resulting contiguous node set in an expanded manner to separate lines:

$ nodeset -e --contiguous node[1-9,11-19]
node1 node2 node3 node4 node5 node6 node7 node8 node9
node11 node12 node13 node14 node15 node16 node17 node18 node19

Choosing fold axis (nD)

The default folding behavior for multidimensional node sets is to fold along all nD axis. However, other cluster tools barely support nD nodeset syntax, so it may be useful to fold along one (or a few) axis only. The --axis option allows you to specify indexes of dimensions to fold. Using this option, rangesets of unspecified axis there won't be folded. Please note however that the obtained result may be suboptimal, this is because NodeSet algorithms are optimized for folding along all axis. --axis value is a set of integers from 1 to n representing selected nD axis, in the form of a number or a rangeset. A common case is to restrict folding on a single axis, like in the following simple examples:

$ nodeset --axis=1 -f node1-ib0 node2-ib0 node1-ib1 node2-ib1

$ nodeset --axis=2 -f node1-ib0 node2-ib0 node1-ib1 node2-ib1

Because a single nodeset may have several different dimensions, axis indices are silently truncated to fall in the allowed range. Negative indices are useful to fold along the last axis whatever number of dimensions used:

$ nodeset --axis=-1 -f comp-[1-2]-[1-36],login-[1-2]

See also the Use case: Slurm of Library Defaults for changing it permanently.

Picking N node(s) at random

Use --pick with a maximum number of nodes you wish to pick randomly from the resulting node set (or from the resulting range set with -R):

$ nodeset --pick=1 -f node11 node12 node13
$ nodeset --pick=2 -f node11 node12 node13

Node groups

This section tackles the node groups feature available more particularly through the nodeset command-line tool. The ClusterShell library defines a node groups syntax and allow you to bind these group sources to your applications (cf. node groups configuration). Having those group sources, group provisioning is easily done through user-defined external shell commands. Thus, node groups might be very dynamic and their nodes might change very often. However, for performance reasons, external call results are still cached in memory to avoid duplicate external calls during nodeset execution. For example, a group source can be bound to a resource manager or a custom cluster database.

For further details about using node groups in Python, please see Node groups. For advanced usage, you should also be able to define your own group source directly in Python (cf. Overriding default groups configuration).

Node group expression rules

The general node group expression is @source:groupname. For example, @slurm:bigmem represents the group bigmem of the group source slurm. Moreover, a shortened expression is available when using the default group source (defined by configuration); for instance @compute represents the compute group of the default group source.

Valid group source names and group names can contain alphanumeric characters, hyphens and underscores (no space allowed). Indeed, same rules apply to node names.

Listing group sources

As already mentioned, the following nodeset command is available to list configured group sources and also display the default group source (unless -q is provided):

$ nodeset --groupsources
local (default)

Listing group names

It is always possible to list the groups from a group source if the source is file-based. If the source is an external group source, the list upcall must be configured (see also: node groups configuration).

To list available groups from the default source, use the following command:

$ nodeset -l

To list groups from a specific group source, use -l in conjunction with -s (or --groupsource):

$ nodeset -l -s slurm

Or, to list groups from all available group sources, use -L (or --list-all):

$ nodeset -L

You can also use nodeset -ll or nodeset -LL to see each group's associated node sets.

Listing group names in expressions

ClusterShell 1.9 introduces a new operator @@ optionally followed by a source name (e.g. @@source) to access the list of raw group names of the source (without the @ prefix). If no source is specified (as in just @@), the default group source is used (see groups.conf). The @@ operator may be used in any node set expression to manipulate group names as a node set.

Example with the default group source:

$ nodeset -l

$ nodeset -e @@
compute login mds mgnt oss

Example with a group source "rack" that defines group names from rack locations in a data center:

$ nodeset -l -s rack

$ nodeset -f @@rack

A set of valid, indexed group sources is also accepted by the @@ operator (e.g. @@dc[1-3]).


An error is generated when using @@ in an expression if the source is not valid (e.g. invalid name, not configured or upcalls not currently working).

Using node groups in basic commands

The use of node groups with the nodeset command is very straightforward. Indeed, any group name, prefixed by @ as mentioned above, can be used in lieu of a node name, where it will be substituted for all nodes in that group.

A first, simple example is a group expansion (using default source) with nodeset:

$ nodeset -e @oss
node40 node41 node42 node43 node44 node45

The nodeset count command works as expected:

$ nodeset -c @oss

Also nodeset folding command can always resolve node groups:

$ nodeset -f @oss

There are usually two ways to use a specific group source (need to be properly configured):

$ nodeset -f @slurm:parallel

$ nodeset -f -s slurm @parallel

Finding node groups

As an extension to the list command, you can search node groups that a specified node set belongs to with nodeset -l[ll] as follow:

$ nodeset -l node40

$ nodeset -ll node40
@all node[1-159]
@oss node[40-45]

This feature is implemented with the help of the NodeSet.groups() method (see Finding node groups for further details).

Resolving node groups

If needed group configuration conditions are met (cf. node groups configuration), you can try group lookups thanks to the -r, --regroup command. This feature is implemented with the help of the NodeSet.regroup() method (see Regrouping node sets for further details). Only exact matching groups are returned (all containing nodes needed), for example:

$ nodeset -r node[40-45]

$ nodeset -r node[0,40-45]

When resolving node groups, nodeset always returns the largest groups first, instead of several smaller matching groups, for instance:

$ nodeset -ll
@login node[50-51]
@compute node[52-81]
@intel node[50-81]

$ nodeset -r node[50-81]

If no matching group is found, nodeset -r still returns folded result (as does -f):

$ nodeset -r node40 node42

Indexed node groups

Node groups are themselves some kind of group sets and can be indexable. To use this feature, node groups external shell commands need to return indexed group names (automatically handled by the library as needed). For example, take a look at these indexed node groups:

$ nodeset -l

$ nodeset -f @io[1-3]

Arithmetic operations on node groups

Arithmetic and special operations (as explained for node sets in nodeset-arithmetic and nodeset-special are also supported with node groups. Any group name can be used in lieu of a node set, where it will be substituted for all nodes in that group before processing requested operations. Some typical examples are:

$ nodeset -f @lustre -x @mds

$ nodeset -r @lustre -x @mds

$ nodeset -r -a -x @lustre

More advanced examples, with the use of node group sets, follow:

$ nodeset -r @io[1-3] -x @io2

$ nodeset -f -I0 @io[1-3]

$ nodeset -f --split=3 @oss

$ nodeset -r --split=3 @oss

Extended patterns support with node groups

Even for node groups, the nodeset command supports arithmetic operations through its extended pattern feature (see Extended String Pattern). A first example illustrates node groups intersection, that can be used in practice to get nodes available from two dynamic group sources at a given time:

$ nodeset -f @db:prod\&@compute

The following fictive example computes a folded node set containing nodes found in node group @gpu and @slurm:bigmem, but not in both, minus the nodes found in odd @chassis groups from 1 to 9 (computed from left to right):

$ nodeset -f @gpu^@slurm:bigmem\!@chassis[1-9/2]

Also, version 1.7 introduces a notation extension @* (or @SOURCE:*) that has been added to quickly represent all nodes (please refer to Selecting all nodes for more details).

Selecting all nodes

The option -a (without argument) can be used to select all nodes from a group source (see node groups configuration for more details on special all external shell command upcall). Example of use for the default group source:

$ nodeset -a -f

Use -s/--groupsource to select another group source.

If not properly configured, the -a option may lead to runtime errors like:

$ nodeset -s mybrokensource -a -f
nodeset: External error: Not enough working methods (all or map + list)
    to get all nodes

A similar option is available with clush, see selecting all nodes with clush.

Node wildcards

ClusterShell 1.8 introduces node wildcards: * means match zero or more characters of any type; ? means match exactly one character of any type.

Any wildcard mask found is matched against all nodes from the group source (see Selecting all nodes).

This can be especially useful for server farms, or when cluster node names differ. Say that your group configuration is set to return the following "all nodes":

$ nodeset -f -a

Then, you can use wildcards to select particular nodes, as shown below:

$ nodeset -f 'www*'

$ nodeset -f 'www*[1-4]'

$ nodeset -f '*serv1'

Wildcard masks are resolved prior to extended patterns, but each mask is evaluated as a whole node set operand. In the example below, we select all nodes matching *serv* before removing all nodes matching www*:

$ nodeset  -f '*serv*!www*'

Range sets

Working with range sets

By default, the nodeset command works with node or group sets and its functionality match most NodeSet class methods. Similarly, nodeset will match RangeSet methods when you make use of the -R option switch. In that case, all operations are restricted to numerical ranges. For example, to expand the range "1-10", you should use:

$ nodeset -e -R 1-10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Almost all commands and operations available for node sets are also available with range sets. The only restrictions are commands and operations related to node groups. For instance, the following command options are not available with nodeset -R:

  • -r, --regroup as this feature is obviously related to node groups,
  • -a / --all as the all external call is also related to node groups.

Using range sets instead of node sets doesn't change the general command usage, like the need of one command option presence (cf. nodeset-commands), or the way to give some input (cf. nodeset-stdin), for example:

$ echo 3 2 36 0 4 1 37 | nodeset -fR

$ echo 0-8/4 | nodeset -eR -S'\n'

Stepping and auto-stepping are supported (cf. Stepping and auto-stepping) and also zero-padding (cf. nodeset-zpad), which are both RangeSet class features anyway.

The following examples illustrate these last points:

$ nodeset -fR 03 05 01 07 11 09

$ nodeset -fR --autostep=3 03 05 01 07 11 09

Arithmetic and special operations

All arithmetic operations, as seen for node sets (cf. nodeset-arithmetic), are available for range sets, for example:

$ nodeset -fR 1-14 -x 10-20

$ nodeset -fR 1-14 -i 10-20

$ nodeset -fR 1-14 -X 10-20

For now, there is no extended patterns syntax for range sets as for node sets (cf. Extended patterns support). However, as the union operator , is available natively by design, such expressions are still allowed:

$ nodeset -fR 4-10,1-2

Besides arithmetic operations, special operations may be very convenient for range sets also. Below is an example with -I / --slice (cf. nodeset-slice):

$ nodeset -fR -I 0 100-131

$ nodeset -fR -I 0-15 100-131

There is another special operation example with --split (cf. nodeset-splitting-n):

$ nodeset -fR --split=2 100-131

Finally, an example of the special operation --contiguous (cf. nodeset-splitting-contiguous):

$ nodeset -f -R --contiguous 1-9,11,13-19

rangeset alias

When using nodeset with range sets intensively (eg. for scripting), it may be convenient to create a local command alias, as shown in the following example (Bourne shell), making it sort of a super seq(1) command:

$ alias rangeset='nodeset -R'
$ rangeset -e 0-8/2
0 2 4 6 8
[1]SLURM is an open-source resource manager (